Clinical Analysis of Running, Running Footwear, and Injury Prevention/Performance. The Doctors of Running, using knowledge of human movement, clinical biomechanics and performance, bring you cutting edge articles, reviews, and research reports.

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Running Research Resource Center
Articles Curated by Doctors of Running

Welcome to our Running Research Archives. This is our central resource center for scholarly work on running science, whether it's training, parts of the shoe, or injury-related. We seek to continue learning about new research being conducted on shoes today and bring the latest science to light through our work at Doctors of Running daily. Have a question or resource to contribute? Send us a message at to let us know.

Shoe Rotation

Malisoux, L., Ramesh, J., Mann, R., Seil, R., Urhausen, A., & Theisen, D. (2015). Can parallel use of different running shoes decrease running-related injury risk?. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 25(1), 110–115.


Willy, R. W., & Paquette, M. R. (2019). The physiology and biomechanics of the master runnerSports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review, 27(1), 15-21.

Hoogkamer, W., Kipp, S. & Kram, R. (2019). The biomechanics of competitive male runners in three marathon racing shoes: a randomized crossover study. Sports Medicine, 49(1), 133-143

Lindorfer, J. Kroll, J. & Schwamender, K. Does enhanced footwear comfort affect oxygen consumption and running biomechanics? European Journal of Sports Science, 20,


Seiler, Stephen. (2010). What is Best Practice for Training Intensity and Duration Distribution in Endurance Athletes?. International journal of sports physiology and performance. 5. 276-91. 10.1123/ijspp.5.3.276.

Adidas Adios 6. Extended torsion system provides some stiffness

Shoe Stiffness/
Carbon Fiber Plates

McLeod, Aubree & Hunter, Iain & Bruening, Dustin & Johnson, Aaron & Remund, Kirk. (2019). Running shoe optimal stiffness and speed. Footwear Science. 11. S207-S208. 10.1080/19424280.2019.1606336

Hebert-Losier, K., Finlayson, S., Driller, M., Dubois, B., Esculier J., & Beaven, C. (2020). Evidence of variable performance responses to the Nike 4% shoe: Definitely not a game-changer for all recreational runners. (Pre-Print).

Hunter, I., Mcleod, A., Valentine, D., Low, T., Ward, J., Hager, R. (2019). .Running economy, mechanics and marathon racing shoes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1-7.

Ortega, J.A., Healey, L.A., Swinnen, W. et al. Energetics and Biomechanics of Running Footwear with Increased Longitudinal Bending Stiffness: A Narrative Review. Sports Med 51, 873–894 (2021).

Roy JP, Stefanyshyn DJ. Shoe midsole longitudinal bending stiffness and running economy, joint energy, and EMG. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Mar;38(3):562-9. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000193562.22001.e8. PMID: 16540846.

Cigoja, S., Asmussen, M. J., Firminger, C. R., Fletcher, J. R., Edwards, W. B., & Nigg, B. M. (2020). The effects of increased midsole bending stiffness of sport shoes on muscle-tendon unit shortening and shortening velocity: a randomised crossover trial in recreational male runners
Sports Medicine-Open, 6(1), 1-11.

Healey, L. A., & Hoogkamer, W. (2021). Longitudinal bending stiffness does not affect running economy in Nike Vaporfly Shoes
Journal of Sport and Health Science, S2095-2546(21)00073-9. Advance online publication.

McLeod, A. R., Bruening, D., Johnson, A. W.,
Ward, J., & Hunter, I. (2020). Improving running economy through altered shoe bending stiffness across speeds
Footwear Science, 12(2), 79-89.

Kulmala, J. P., Kosonen, J., Nurminen, J., & Avela, J. (2018). Running in highly cushioned shoes increases leg stiffness and amplifies impact loading
Scientific reports, 8(1), 1-7.

Oh, K., & Park, S. (2017). The bending stiffness of shoes is beneficial to running energetics if it does not disturb the natural MTP joint flexion. Journal of Biomechanics, 53, 127-135.

Nigg, B. M., & Liu, W. (1999). The effect of muscle stiffness and damping on simulated impact force peaks during running. Journal of Biomechanics, 32(8), 849-856.

Saucony Omni 20. A medial posted shoe.

Nielsen, RO. (2013). Foot Pronation is not associated with increased injury risk in novice runners wearing a neutral shoe: a 1-year prospective cohort study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 61(4).

Willems TM, Ley C, Goetghebeur E, Theisen D, Malisoux L. Motion-Control Shoes Reduce the Risk of Pronation-Related Pathologies in Recreational Runners: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2021 Mar;51(3):135-143. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2021.9710. Epub 2020 Dec 11. PMID: 33306927.

Bolgla, L. A., & Malone, T. R. (2004). Plantar fasciitis and the windlass mechanism: a biomechanical link to clinical practiceJournal of athletic training, 39(1), 77.

Chen, T. L. W., Wong, D. W. C., Wang, Y., Lin, J., & Zhang, M. (2019). Foot arch deformation and plantar fascia loading during running with rearfoot strike and forefoot strike: a dynamic finite element analysis
Journal of biomechanics, 83, 260-272.

McDonald, K. A., Stearne, S. M., Alderson, J. A., North, I., Pires, N. J., & Rubenson, J. (2016). The role of arch compression and metatarsophalangeal joint dynamics in modulating plantar fascia strain in running
PloS one11(4), e0152602.

Welte, L., Kelly, L. A., Kessler, S. E., Lieberman, D. E., D'Andrea, S. E., Lichtwark, G. A., & Rainbow, M. J. (2021). The extensibility of the plantar fascia influences the windlass mechanism during human running
Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 288(1943), 20202095.

Comfort Filter

​​Nigg, B., Baltich, J., Hoerzer, S., Enders, H. (2015). Running shoes and running injuries: mythbusting and a proposal for two new paradigms: 'preferred movement path' and 'comfort filter'. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(20).

M√ľndermann, A., Nigg, B. M., Stefanyshyn, D. J., & Humble, R. N. (2002). Development of a reliable method to assess footwear comfort during running
Gait & posture, 16(1), 38-45.

Hoka Bondi X. A max cushioned trainer for long days.
Maximal Cushioning

Kulmala, J. P., Kosonen, J., Nurminen, J., & Avela, J. (2018). Running in highly cushioned shoes increases leg stiffness and amplifies impact loadingScientific Reports8(1), 1-7.

Nigg, B. M., Baltich, J., Hoerzer, S., & Enders, H. (2015). Running shoes and running injuries: mythbusting and a proposal for two new paradigms:‘preferred movement path’and ‘comfort filter’
British Journal of Sports Medicine49(20), 1290-1294.

Ogston, J. K. (2019). Comparison of in-shoe plantar loading forces between minimalist and maximalist cushion running shoes
Footwear Science11(1), 55-61.

Theisen, D., Malisoux, L., Genin, J., Delattre, N., Seil, R., & Urhausen, A. (2014). Influence of midsole hardness of standard cushioned shoes on running-related injury risk
British Journal of Sports Medicine48(5), 371-376.

Pollard, C. D., Ter Har, J. A., Hannigan, J. J., & Norcross, M. F. (2018). Influence of maximal running shoes on biomechanics before and after a 5K runOrthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 6(6), 2325967118775720.   

Baltich, J., Maurer, C., & Nigg, B. M. (2015). Increased vertical impact forces and altered running mechanics with softer midsole shoes. PloS One, 10(4), e0125196.

Kulmala, J. P., Kosonen, J., Nurminen, J., & Avela, J. (2018). Running in highly cushioned shoes increases leg stiffness and amplifies impact loading. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1-7.


Sobhani, S., van den Heuvel, E. R., Dekker, R., Postema, K., Kluitenberg, B., Bredeweg, S. W., & Hijmans, J. M. (2017). Biomechanics of running with rocker shoesJournal of Science and Medicine in Sport20(1), 38-44.

Sobhani, S., Zwerver, J., van den Heuvel, E., Postema, K., Dekker, R., & Hijmans, J. M. (2015). Rocker shoes reduce Achilles tendon load in running and walking in patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport18(2), 133-138.

Skechers MaxRoad 5. New upper steps up comfort generously.
Shoe Uppers

Onodera, Andrea & Roveri, Maria & de Oliveira, Wagner & Sacco, Isabel. (2015). The influence of shoe upper construction on the plantar pressure distribution during running. Footwear Science. 7. S81-S82. 10.1080/19424280.2015.1038620.

Gender Differences

Ferber, Reed & Davis, Irene & Williams, D S. (2003). Gender differences in lower extremity mechanics during running. Clinical biomechanics. 18. 350-7. 10.1016/S0268-0033(03)00025-1.

Hollander, K., Rahlf, A.L., Wilke, J. et al. (2021). Sex-Specific Differences in Running Injuries: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression. Sports Med. 51, 1011–1039. 10.1007/s40279-020-01412-7

Daniels, J., Daniels, N. (1992). Running economy of elite male and elite female runners. Medicine and Science in Sports & Exercise, 24(4): 483-489.

Foot Strikes

Hasegawa, H., Yamauchi, T., & Kraemer, W. J. (2007). Foot strike patterns of runners at the 15-km point during an elite-level half marathonJournal of strength and conditioning research21(3), 888.

Kasmer, M. E., Liu, X. C., Roberts, K. G., & Valadao, J. M. (2013). Foot-strike pattern and performance in a marathonInternational journal of sports physiology and performance8(3), 286-292.

Larson, P., Higgins, E., Kaminski, J., Decker, T., Preble, J., Lyons, D., ... & Normile, A. (2011). Foot strike patterns of recreational and sub-elite runners in a long-distance road raceJournal of sports sciences29(15), 1665-1673.

Barefoot Running/Minimal Movement

Hashish, R., Samarawickrame, S. D., Powers, C. M., & Salem, G. J. (2016). Lower limb dynamics vary in shod runners who acutely transition to barefoot running. Journal of Biomechanics49(2), 284-288.

Davis, I. S. (2014). The re-emergence of the minimal running shoejournal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy44(10), 775-784.


Neumann, D. A. (2016). Kinesiology of the musculoskeletal system-e-book: foundations for rehabilitation. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Azadinia, F., Takamjani, E. E., Kamyab, M., Parnianpour, M., Cholewicki, J., & Maroufi, N. (2017). Can lumbosacral orthoses cause trunk muscle weakness? A systematic review of literatureThe Spine Journal17(4), 589-602.

Lynn., S., Padilla, R., Tsang, K. (2012). Differences in Static and Dynamic Balance Task Performance After 4 weeks of intrinsic foot muscle training: the Short Foot Exercise Veruss the Towel Curl Exercise. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 21: 327-333.

New Balance Vongo v5. Motion control can relieve some achilles pain.
Achilles Tendinopathy

Hamner, S. R., Seth, A., & Delp, S. L. (2010). Muscle contributions to propulsion and support during running. Journal of Biomechanics43(14), 2709-2716.

Lagas, I. F., Fokkema, T., Verhaar, J. A., Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M., van Middelkoop, M., & de Vos, R. J. (2020). Incidence of Achilles tendinopathy and associated risk factors in recreational runners: A large prospective cohort study
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport23(5), 448-452.

Lieberthal, K., Paterson, K. L., Cook, J., Kiss, Z., Girdwood, M., & Bradshaw, E. J. (2019). Prevalence and factors associated with asymptomatic Achilles tendon pathology in male distance runners
Physical Therapy in Sport39, 64-68.

Sobhani, S., Zwerver, J., van den Heuvel, E., Postema, K., Dekker, R., & Hijmans, J. M. (2015). Rocker shoes reduce Achilles tendon load in running and walking in patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathyJournal of Science and Medicine in Sport18(2), 133-138.


Boissonnault, W., & Donatelli, R. (1984). The influence of hallux extension on the foot during ambulation
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 5(5), 240-242.

Studies on backpacks

Faghy, M. A., & Brown, P. I. (2016). Training the inspiratory muscles improves running performance when carrying a 25 kg thoracic load in a backpack. European journal of sport science, 16(5), 585-594. Huang, L., Yang, Z., Wang, R., & Xie, L. (2020).

Physiological and biomechanical effects on the human musculoskeletal system while carrying a suspended-load backpack
. Journal of Biomechanics, 108, 109894. Malcolm, P., Panizzolo, F. A., Speeckaert, J., Kim, J., Su, H., Lee, G., ... & Walsh, C. J. (2017).

Effect of slope and speed on kinetics of jogging with a backpack. In Proc. 41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics (ASB). Scheer, V., Cramer, L., & Heitkamp, H. C. (2018).

Running economy and energy cost of running with backpacks
. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 59(4), 555-560.

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